Cai Mao
Character Information
Force(s): Liu Biao's Forces
Cao Cao's Forces
Weapon Type: Spear (3~4, 6~7)
Sword (5)
Great sword (8)
Unit Type: Warrior
Significant Battle(s):
First Appearance: Dynasty Warriors 3
Historical Information
Real name:
Cài Mào
Chinese name:
Style name:
Chinese name:
Executed in 208 in Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Cai Mao (onyomi: Sai Bō) is a general who first serves Liu Biao. He shares family ties with Yueying, Zhuge Liang, and Liu Biao since his two elder sisters married Huang Chengyan and Liu Biao. It is said Liu Biao was only able to build his reputation due to Cai Mao's achievements.

His height in Kessen II is 175 cm (5'9").

Role in GamesEdit

The Dynasty Warriors series reduces his role to a minor general during Chibi. He is first to appear with Liu Biao before he meets with Cao Cao in the third title. In Dynasty Warriors 4, he appears to the north of the map near Cao Pi's unit. He also appears working with Huang Zu.

Cai Mao reappears in Dynasty Warriors 6, fighting at Chibi under Cao Cao. He fights against the allied forces. But if Lu Bu's army interferes with the battle and defeats Cao Cao and Sun Quan, he will fight with the allied forces due to Zhou Yu and Dian Wei's agreement to a truce between both forces.

Dynasty Warriors 8 has him appear again on Cao Cao's side at Chibi. In Wei's story, Cai Mao defects to the allied forces after the fire attack and has to be defeated in order to lower the bridge to the mainland for Cao Cao's escape. In the alternate version of the battle, Cai Mao defects to the enemy after Huang Gai and Han Dang are defeated. If he is defeated, he rejoins Cao Cao's ranks and lowers the bridge to the boat which is used to attack the allied forces.

In Dynasty Warriors 9, he appears as a subordinate under Liu Biao and Huang Zu in a few early campaigns. Come Chibi however, and he alongside Zhang Yun serve under Cao Cao. When playing as the Shu-Wu alliance, the player has the option to send false messages through Jiang Gan leading to their off-screen execution. Should they not be implicated however, both generals will lead a navy alongside Cao Cao's main assault. Despite their promises to fight for Cao Cao, they are implied to have defected to the alliance afterwards but neither are seen in a prominent capacity again. In Xu Shu's DLC scenario, he plays a very large role in the hypothetical story. He is first seen with his lord Liu Biao after the defense of Xiakou where he reprimands Liu Bei and tells his lord to give Jing province to Liu Cong instead. His pleas go ignored and he leaves in anger. Shortly after, Liu Biao falls ill allowing Cai Mao to tyranically rule Xiangyang for a while. Inviting a lot of local powers including Liu Bei to a feast, Xu Shu's suspicions are confirmed when he is kicking out merchants for trying to make a living. An assassination attempt on Liu Bei's life occurs and thanks to Xu Shu sending Zhao Yun as a bodyguard and the other Shu officers to secure a quick escape route, Liu Bei survives. Liu Cong, however, is revealed not to be compliant with Cao Mao and Liu Bei accepts him into their forces. After a long power struggle with Cao Cao, Zhuge Liang goes missing and needs to be rescued from Xiapi. The perpetrator for the plot who allowed Cao Pi to take away Zhuge Liang is revealed to be Cai Mao who is quickly defeated for a final time and is not seen under Shu or Wei for the remaining battles.

Cai Mao is an optional general for Shu in Kessen II. Zhuge Liang offers a ploy to have Cai Mao defect by causing a rift between him and Cao Cao. If Liu Bei chooses to accept, a disheartened Cai Mao can join his side for Chibi as a secondary general. Should the player not agree to the scheme, he will instead antagonize Shu as a part of Wei's navy. Cai Mao's stats are overall low and not exactly ideal for battles throughout the game. However, he may prove valuable for dropping the morale of enemy forces at Chibi.

In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Cai Mao is a decent officer with all of his stats in the 70's. Although not very skilled in combat on land, he is a good naval commander, emphasized by his high naval aptitude as well as his skill in the eleventh installment which increases the movement range of ships. He serves Liu Biao in all scenarios he is alive.

Voice ActorsEdit

  • Christopher Carroll - Kessen II (English - uncredited)
  • Kazunari Tanaka - Kessen II (Japanese)
  • Yūichi Karasuma - Sangokushi Legion


  • "I don't want to lose you to some devious enemy scheme. Master Cai Mao, will you trust me and come back to us?"
"What? They tricked me? Let us board these ships and strike at their very core!"
~~Guo Jia and Cai Mao; Dynasty Warriors 8

Historical InformationEdit

Cai Mao was the only known son of Cai Feng. He was born in Xiangyang Commandary. His family lived in wealth and luxury, one of their splendid estates once stood in Caizhou. Their manor was surrounded with four angled walls made of blue stone and their servant maidens thrived in the hundreds. Along with their forty-five plots of farmland, the Cai family was an influential family of power. Cai Mao's aunt was married to the Minister of Works, Zhang Wen. His eldest sister was married to Huang Chengyan and his second eldest sister became Liu Biao's wife.

Among his family, Cai Mao was described as a self-made man of strong constitution and character. When Liu Biao became the Governor of Jingzhou, his neighbors, Su Dai and Bei Yu, didn't accept him. Therefore, Liu Biao stationed himself at Yicheng and ordered Cai Mao, Kuai Yue, and Kuai Liang to straighten matters between them. Through this plan, the area became pacified. Cai Mao gradually rose in ranks within Liu Biao's service and became General who Suppresses the South. After his sister fostered Liu Cong, Liu Biao further showed favor towards Cai Mao and Zhang Yun. Likewise, the vassal's bond with his master became friendlier.

According to the Record of Xiangyang, Cai Mao was actually scheming for Liu Cong to become the rightful heir and was only acting faithful to his liege on the surface. When Liu Biao was critically ill and Liu Qi looked as though he was trying to visit, Cai Mao feared his plans would be ruined by parental love. Therefore, he barred Liu Qi from entering and chased him away. Liu Bei's scroll in Record of the Three Kingdoms instead states Cai Mao and Kuai Yue plotted to assassinate Liu Biao. However, this entry has been criticized as being doubtful and unrealistic by the historian, Sun Sheng, due to lack of evidence and continuity with other historical records.

Liu Cong did succeed Jingzhou after his father's death, but shortly surrendered his rights to the land on threat of Cao Cao's invasion. Since Cai Mao was once Cao Cao's friend during their youth, the latter entered Cai Mao's home. Cao Cao turned to Cai Mao's wife and child and said, "Degui (Cai Mao), do you remember? Long ago, we were going to visit Liang Menxing (Liang Hu), but we could only seem to meet here. Being here today, what pride do I have to see your face?"

His rank under Cao Cao gradually rose until he became Marquis of Hanyang. According to Record of Xiangyang, a tomb and an elaborate stone statue of a giant deer was seen south of Cai Mao's residence. It suggests he lived his life in comfortable luxury. Cai Mao was treated warmly as though he were Cao Cao's old friend, but many people privately despised him. This negative reaction was mainly spurned by his unfair treatment towards Liu Qi.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Cai Mao was a general of Liu Biao in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. He helped Liu Biao in govern Jing Province with Kuai Liang and Kuai Yue. During the fighting against Sun Jian's troops, Cai Mao dueled Huang Gai, but fled when he was hit near his heart. He and Kuai Yue later attack in an ambush against Sun Jian, but Sun Jian escaped. Cai Mao motioned to fortify their position in Xiangyang and was given 10,000 troops. He withdrew from a duel against Cheng Pu and his men were slaughtered. Kuai Liang urged Liu Biao to execute Cai Mao for his failure but he was spared. When Sun Jian died, Cai Mao scattered the enemy forces during the confusion.

Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao and turned his attention to Liu Bei in Runan. The latter sent Sun Qian to ask Liu Biao for refuge. Cai Mao objected, citing Liu Bei's past history as a deterrent and favoring surrender to Cao Cao. His notion was turned down when Sun Qian convinced Liu Biao to reconsider. Cai Mao complained to his sister of Liu Bei, claiming that their guest was dangerous. Lady Cai spoke to her husband and consequentially led to Liu Bei's troops being repositioned to a distant Xinye.

Liu Bei convinced Liu Biao to make his oldest son, Liu Qi, heir instead of Lady Cai's son, Liu Cong, during a dinner conversation. Lady Cai, who was present, overheard Liu Bei's ambitious nature and told Cai Mao about it. Cai Mao sought to kill Liu Bei and assembled troops to surround Liu Bei's guest house. Liu Bei had already left, so Cai Mao wrote a poem on one of the partitions and informed Liu Biao about it, claiming that it was written by Liu Bei. The scheme failed.

Later, Cai Mao tried to ambush Liu Bei by surrounding his residence during a banquet, but Liu Bei manages to escape after Yi Ji told him about Cai Mao's plot. Cai Mao pursued Liu Bei to Tan River, lying about his intentions to kill their guest. Liu Bei saw past the deception as Cai Mao readies an arrow to his bowstring, fleeing to Xinye. Cai Mao returned to the banquet and lied to Zhao Yun, stating it was his duty to follow Liu Bei and he had left by the west gate. Liu Bei in the meantime sent Sun Qian to inform Liu Biao about Cai Mao. Liu Biao ordered for Cai Mao's execution, but Sun Qian argued against it. Cai Mao is only heavily reprimanded.

Huang Zu's death led to Liu Qi wanting to escape the Cai family's influence by volunteering to guard the vacant Jiangxia. Liu Biao gave into to a mortal illness and appointed Liu Bei to become Liu Qi's legal guardian, his chosen successor. When Liu Qi returned to see his ailing father, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun blocked his way. The Cai family appoint Liu Cong as Liu Biao's heir upon the warlord's death and surrendered Jing Province to Cao Cao. Realizing he was without a benefactor, Liu Bei left Fan to head to Xiangyang. Cai Mao set fire to the outer castle walls, but Wei Yan opened the gates for Liu Bei, calling Cai Mao a traitor.

After Liu Bei's escape, Cao Cao summoned for Liu Cong. Wang Wei wanted to attack Cao Cao, starting a quarrel between him and Cai Mao. Liu Cong quieted their bickering. Cai Mao and Zhang Yun visit Cao Cao at Fan to inform him of Jing's army and navy. Cai Mao was given command of Cao Cao's newly acquired navy.

Prior to the climatic battle of Chibi, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun were defeated by the Wu forces. They are pardoned by Cao Cao and ordered to build a large base at the river bank. Jiang Gan was ordered by Cao Cao to spy on Zhou Yu and unwittingly returned with news of a false surrender by Cai Mao and Zhang Yun. To test the worth of the tale, both were ordered to attack Wu. The navy veterans refused, stating that their troops were not sufficiently trained, Cao Cao confronted them with their supposed surrender. Both remain silent of their innocence, so Cao Cao ordered their execution. Later, Cao Cao discovered that the surrender was a plot by Zhou Yu to weaken his navy.