165 cm (5'5")
|Weapon Type:||Rapier (7~8, 9)|
|Playable Debut:||Dynasty Warriors 7|
劉禪 - 刘禅
|Posthumously known as Emperor Xiaohuai (孝懷皇帝).|
Liu Shan (onyomi: Ryū Zen) is Liu Bei's eldest son and successor. Even when named figurehead leader of Shu, Liu Shan isn't known to have done much to help his country prosper. He is infamously known under his childhood name in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, A Dou (阿斗), which is also an idiom for an incompetent person. His two wives are Zhang Fei's daughters.
Prior to his playable Dynasty Warriors appearance, he was the infant battlefield item and became a Shu NPC in the fourth title's Xtreme Legends expansion. Gamecity's Dynasty Warriors 7 character popularity poll has him as forty-second place and fiftieth in the Dynasty Warriors 8: Xtreme Legends poll. The latest poll for the eighth installment puts him in fifty-fourth. The character poll for overseas fans puts him in twenty-first place for the Shu division.
Before Dynasty Warriors 7 was ported overseas, Koei titles addressed him as Liu Chan in their English localization.
- 1 Role in Games
- 2 Character Information
- 3 Quotes
- 4 Gameplay
- 5 Weapons
- 6 Historical Information
- 7 Romance of the Three Kingdoms
- 8 Gallery
Role in Games[edit | edit source]
- "You may play the fool, but your spirit reveals the truth."
- ~~Motochika; Warriors Orochi 3
Dynasty Warriors[edit | edit source]
He is portrayed as an effeminate and cowardly monarch during Jiang Wei's Legend Mode in Dynasty Warriors 4: Xtreme Legends. Liu Chan fears the incoming Wei army and thinks surrender is the only option for saving his own skin.
In Dynasty Warriors 5, he takes over the Shu kingdom after Liu Bei's death. He is left to defend Shu's land after an invasion from Wu at Bai Di Castle. Furthermore, Zhuge Liang is busy at Wu Zhang Plains and is unable to help Liu Chan. Only Ma Chao, Huang Zhong, Jiang Wei, and Xing Cai remain to guard him. Liu Chan is depicted as gentle, weak, and untrained. Lovestruck by the maiden, he sorely wishes for Xing Cai to stay behind and wishes he had Guan Ping's strength so he can properly protect her. During the battle, he will rush to her aid should her health drop to low levels. After the battle, however, he vows to grow stronger to protect his people during Shu's scenarios. Xing Cai's ending scene shows Liu Chan struggling to train with her. His fate in other scenarios is not clearly mentioned as Zhuge Liang usually serves as the commander of Shu in the games.
During Dynasty Warriors Vol. 2, Liu Chan appears as Shu's commander for the "Sixth Northern Campaign", which covers Jiang Wei's attack on Wei after Zhuge Liang's death. During the battle, he can be assaulted at the main camp by Zhong Hui and Deng Ai's troops from the western highlands and will need to be rescued. Also during the battle, the Wei forces will goad him into running off into the middle of the battle, but he can be calmed down if he is approached by the player, and will return back to the main camp after doing so.
He also appears at Bai Di Castle in Wu's Musou Mode, acting as the commander of Shu's remaining officers after Liu Bei's death. Inspired by the stubborn defense of his officers, Liu Chan immediately rouses himself and becomes stronger in fighting the Wu forces, which inspires Jiang Wei to also fight harder. Once he is slain, Shu will finally be conquered by Sun Quan, who moves on to siege Wei at Xu Chang.
For his playable appearance in Dynasty Warriors 7, Liu Shan is rescued by Zhao Yun at Changban in Shu's Story Mode and later appears again as Liu Bei's heir after his father's death. His ascension is plagued with rumors of his inexperience and causes uncertainty among those in his ranks. In Jin's Story Mode, he leads Shu's Army at the final Battle of Chengdu. He personally faces Sima Zhao in a duel. The commander implores for Liu Shan's surrender to revitalize the dated world around them. When he is defeated, Liu Shan contemplates the plea and returns to Chengdu to ponder it. He agrees to it only when the Wei army reaches the gates of his domain, and he is given the rank of a duke under Sima Zhao. During the solemn victory banquet, Liu Shan merrily encourages his supporters to not dwell on the past. He reasons that a future with endless possibilities is more promising.
His first Legend Battle has him face the Wei forces alongside Zhao Yun at Changban and defeat Sima Yi. He defends Chengdu against Wei in his second Legend Battle. Liu Shan fights personally to protect his homeland and eventually defeats Sima Zhao and Sima Shi.
The Xtreme Legends expansion adds a Hero Scenario specifically dedicated to his participation. After Shu's kingdom falls, both Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei join forces to create their rebellious independent state in Shu. Sima Zhao wishes to cut their upstarts before they become problematic, dragging Liu Shan with him. Although well aware of the irony in attacking his own homeland, Liu Shan participates with the hopes of restoring peace. On the pretense of reliving his childhood memories, Xing Cai accompanies him west to retrieve Yue Ying's "old toys" and to the center to visit his old friend held captive. Through the opening in the enemy formation, he locates and kills Jiang Wei. Stating that he had no other option, a large portion of Shu loyalists within the enemy ranks falter due to Liu Shan's conviction and retreat.
He then corners Zhong Hui and slays him. Both he and Sima Zhao pity the rebel leaders for they centered themselves on a narrow future, as opposed to seeing a variety of options they could have chosen. Liu Shan, tired of war and politics, decides to entrust Sima Zhao the task of creating a better future and departs to live his own life. Sima Zhao gives his respectful blessings and watches him leave the battlefield.
Liu Shan first appears in Dynasty Warriors Next as an infant in the fifth chapter. Zhao Yun spirits him away to safety following a steeplechase event at Changban. After the fall of Wu in Shu's final chapter, the fully grown Liu Shan volunteers to join his father's army in order to please him. During Shu's ending, he is seen greeting the younger officers together with Xingcai. Jin's chapter has him take over as leader of Shu. He entrusts the fate of his army to Jiang Wei, though the latter's strategies prove ineffective against the encroaching forces of Sima Yi. Cornered at Chengdu, he is slain by Sima Zhao who empathizes with the young ruler over living in the shadows of their respective fathers.
In Dynasty Warriors 8, Liu Shan will be separated from Liu Bei's main unit at Changban, and Zhao Yun must clear a village from Cao Cao's men in order to retrieve the infant. As an adult, Liu Shan joins the fight at Tianshui. After defeating Jiang Wei, he kindly convinces the young strategist to join Shu. In the hypothetical route, Liu Shan accompanies his father to Xuchang to defeat Cao Cao.
In Jin's historical route, he reprises his previous role, only appearing in the final battle at Chengdu. As for the hypothetical route, he will still be Shu's leader, but this time he fights against Sima Shi. Despite objections, Liu Shan arrives as unexpected reinforcements for Shu at Chengdu. However, this has a negative effect as the Shu forces are forced to change their objective to protecting Liu Shan rather than fighting Wei, as he is now a priority target. Though he is captured, Jiang Wei ambushes Sima Shi later in the night with help from the Nanman. The attempt to rescue Liu Shan eventually fails, and Liu Shan is relocated to Chang'an.
He appears in some of the new scenarios for Shu in the Xtreme Legends version. One of them highlights a fictional defense of Yong'an while Jiang Wei is away. Liu Shan, Xingcai, and Yueying are charged with defending the territory's castle against the invading forces of Wu. In one of Jin's additional stages, he is present in the final subjugation of both Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei at Shangyong, where he finally convinces Jiang Wei to lay down his arms.
In Dynasty Warriors: Unleashed, Liu Shan is given a set of bond stories that flesh out his own inadequacies in leading Shu. Although Zhuge Liang has high hopes for the young heir, the latter feels overwhelmed by the responsibilities handed to him. He becomes especially worried about the people suffering from his kingdom's campaigns draining their resources. His surrender to Wei and the ostracism that follows is reprised, though it is thanks to him that the people of Shu can still live prosperously.
During the ninth title, he is given more importance after Zhuge Liang's death, as he often deliberates with Huang Hao and Jiang Wei and the other military officers regarding the next move. While he permits Jiang Wei's campaigns, he progressively becomes more reluctant and frustrated by the inadequate and costly results, though he keeps these sentiments hidden. His surrender is largely the same. As he is being escorted away, he wishes for his people to live the remainder of their lives happily but is instead met with jeers and insults. While Xingcai senses her lord's pain, he wishes to bear the burden alone as it was his decision that put an end to the dreams of his father, the fallen retainers and the people.
In both Zhong Hui and Cao Pi's DLC scenarios, Liu Shan is the leader of Shu, and opposes their respective invasions of his kingdom. In both, he also resists both leaders, rather than simply surrendering immediately. In Zhong Hui's scenario, he is captured after his defeat and is used as a hostage to force Jiang Wei to serve him. The Shu forces later attempt to take him back once Sima Zhao is killed at Hefei Castle.
In Cao Pi's scenario, his request for peace between both kingdoms is rejected, and he surrenders after his defeat at Chengdu. After handing over his imperial seal, he asks the emperor to take care of the people of Shu. Cao Pi accepts his defeated opponent's request as they have already been assimilated into Wei, but affirms that, while, he does share the same vision of benevolence and peace after order is restored, he does not cling to it like a dream.
Warriors Orochi[edit | edit source]
In Warriors Orochi 2, Liu Chan serves as Liu Bei's replacement officer when players assume his father's role. He reacts with dismay if Xing Cai is forced to withdraw during their conflict against Sun Wukong in the Wuhang Mountains.
Liu Shan had previously traveled the dimensional realm with Xingcai and Jiang Wei in Warriors Orochi 3. When his comrades were taken hostage by the serpent army, Liu Shan was coerced to fight for the serpent army. After being defeated by the coalition at Hasedō, he agrees to join their cause to rescue the hostages at Xuchang.
When he hears that Jiang Wei lost his life in the past, he desires to save his comrade by working together with Zhang He who was once held captive at Xuchang. Relying on his comrade's account, Liu Shan and his party return to the past at Mt. Xingshi. They defeat Zhong Hui's army who is the one responsible for causing Jiang Wei's demise in the original time line. Without the obstruction in the past, Liu Shan believes Jiang Wei to be hiding at Xuchang within the altered future. His prediction is correct as they find and rescue the isolated general. He and his party also learn the wonders of kemari when they investigate Liang Province.
Liu Shan, alongside Xingcai, are one of the couples who are seen bickering in one of the downloadable stage Domestic Disputes. As Xingcai is attempting to get him to train for the upcoming battle with Orochi's forces, he complains of a headache and claims he can no longer fight. He eventually returns and vows to fight alongside Xingcai, and the other arguing couples, against the incoming Orochi army.
In "The Search For Liu Shan", Liu Shan attempts to shirk Xingcai's training regimen only to be ambushed by Da Ji's group.
Warriors Orochi 4 separates Liu Shan's forces from his father's when they are transported to the new world. Still confused, he is captured by Athena and is used as a hostage to keep the detachment of Shu Forces accompanying him in the goddess's service.
Later on, Bao Sanniang, accompanied by ninjas from the Coalition, raids Liu Shan's prison at Ōdani Castle, getting most of the Shu officers, save for Zhao Yun's group at Kawanakajima, to defect before rescuing the prince. Grateful for both his rescue and being able to rejoin his retainers, Liu Shan joins his father's coalition.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms[edit | edit source]
In the Romance of the Three Kingdoms series, Liu Chan can either follow his father's footsteps or appear as a random secondary officer. He has one of the lowest stats in the series, coming in at a mere total of 21 points in the twelfth title.
Character Information[edit | edit source]
Development[edit | edit source]
To provide a typical heroic image found in Warriors titles, Liu Shan was designed to avoid the idiot image found throughout fiction. He was added to bridge the gap between Shu and Jin, since Liu Bei doesn't live long enough to see the fall of his kingdom. He was designed to be a normal person with a smiling visage who additionally dresses in a fashion fitting for an emperor. Since developers strove to perceive him to not be as strong as his father, he wields the easier-to-use rapier for his weapon of choice. His chosen weapon is meant to mirror his father's heavier dual swords.
Personality[edit | edit source]
A young man with a mountain of expectations hefted onto his shoulders, Liu Shan is a quiet and calm individual who keeps a soft smile on his face at all times. He allows others to think he is a fool and lacks skills in combat, but he trains in secret to respect those fighting for his father's cause. Liu Shan feigns childish ignorance to proceed with his strategies in the battlefield, secretly controlling his unsuspecting vassals to do what he requires of them with his seemingly flippant wanderings. He continues his charade on the pretense that it protects himself and his kingdom, but mainly due to fear of his implied dangerous capabilities. Pretending to be a fool is safer than causing unintended harm to others in Liu Shan's eyes. The emperor is therefore relieved when he is relinquished of his duties, as he is no longer forced to be a potential threat to those around him. If there's anyone who Liu Shan believes can truly understand him, it's Sima Zhao. Liu Shan sympathizes with the Wei commander at how both of them have been forced to fight within the shadows of their predecessors, and the emperor laments how they must meet as enemies.
During 9, more of Liu Shan's hidden emotions are traced only by Xingcai. His frustrations with Jiang Wei's needless and constant northern campaigns as well as being ridiculed by the people for surrendering all draw more of his ire, though for the sake of unity, he relents to take responsibility. He also holds more conflict towards Jiang Wei, even asking him upfront why repeated campaigns must be waged and questioning the path that they've taken.
His Dynasty Warriors 5 incarnation has one-sided affections for Xingcai, but the attraction is mutually shared between them for their later incarnations. Dubbing her his "Shining Star of Hope", Liu Shan is thankful for her constant protection and steadfast support.
He befriends Motochika and Yoshimoto in his Warriors Orochi appearance. In the fourth game, Munenori Yagyū hold him in high regard due to his ability to seemingly hide his true emotions. Zuo Ci is perturbed by Liu Shan's true intentions, and Liu Shan shows a small glimpse of his true self to the sorcerer to affirm his decision to remain "a fool".
Character Symbolism[edit | edit source]
His third weapon in Dynasty Warriors Next and fourth in Warriors Orochi is one of Cao Cao's twin swords in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. As Zhao Yun searched for an infant Liu Shan during the retreat at Changban, he killed a pursuing Xiahou En and took the sword as his prize. Unlike the version of the blade Cao Cao uses in the games, Liu Shan's version uses the sword's original name as opposed to one of its many monikers.
Voice Actors[edit | edit source]
- Moriya Endō - Dynasty Warriors 4~5 (Japanese)
- Tony Oliver - Dynasty Warriors 5 (English-uncredited)
- Steve Staley - Dynasty Warriors 7~8 (English-uncredited)
- Taiki Matsuno - Dynasty Warriors 7~9, Warriors Orochi 3~4 (Japanese)
- Dennis Pastorizo - Dynasty Warriors 9 (English)
- Xiang Li - Dynasty Warriors 9 (Chinese)
- Kim Beomsu - Romance of the Three Kingdoms: The Legend of Cao Cao (Korean)
- Shinichiro Ota - Romance of the Three Kingdoms drama CD series (Japanese)
Quotes[edit | edit source]
- See also: Liu Shan/Quotes
- "Though I may not possess the strength of my father, I share his love of virtue."
- "I must defend my father's kingdom. Noble spirits, lend me your strength!"
- "My lord! It's time for weapons training."
- "Very well. Good luck with that."
- "My lord... I meant it's time for your weapons training..."
- "Really? I wish you'd give me a bit more warning next time."
- ~~Xing Cai and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 7
- "I don't think that is such a good idea. As dimwitted as I am, I don't think I'll be of much use."
- "Hmmm... Perhaps you're not as foolish as you... Never mind, let's just leave it at that then."
- ~~Liu Shan and Sima Zhao; Dynasty Warriors 7: Xtreme Legends
- "As the son of Liu Bei, do you think you can achieve great virtue?"
- "I am just a simple minded fool. You shouldn't put much faith in me."
- "Knowing oneself is not something a fool can do. You simply have yet to realize your own potential."
- "Hah... Why does everyone always have such high expectations of me?"
- ~~Zuo Ci and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 8
- "As long as we both rise up against the chaos, we have no choice but to fight. I shall personally bring an end to Shu's destiny!"
- "Why does everybody always want to fight? Surely, there must be a better way..."
- ~~Sun Quan and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 8: Xtreme Legends
- "I promise you I will try, so let us see what happens. Just do not make anymore problems for me."
- "I am not the source of your problems. That would be the talent you have hidden. Now you must face it."
- "Oh, why does it have to be so complicated?"
- ~~Liu Shan and Motochika Chōsokabe ; Warriors Orochi 3
- "He who can do all things with a calm heart, this man is a master. Master Liu Shan, you have remarkable strength."
- "What are you talking about? You know that I am weak, Master Munenori."
- "You see-- I can't fluster you, no matter how hard I try. You're unflappable."
- "Well, I have often been called simple and slow-witted. I suppose that's why I'm late to react."
- "I see. So tell me, Master Liu Shan, what's your take on my flappability?"
- "Flappability...? Well, I've certainly never once seen you flustered."
- "You really are a master at playing the fool, aren't you? I have a lot to learn from you."
- "Hehe... I'm not sure I understand what you're saying. Are you making fun of me?"
- "Not really. The truth is, I admire you a lot."
- ~~Munenori and Liu Shan; Warriors Orochi 4
Gameplay[edit | edit source]
- See also: Liu Shan/Movesets
Dynasty Warriors 9[edit | edit source]
|Keys:||Flow Attack •||Reactive Attack •||Musou •||Jump/Mount|
Liu Shan is affiliated with the rapier in this appearance.
- Unique Flow Attack:
- Unique Trigger Attack ( R1 + ):
- Special Technique (R1 + ):
- Musou ():
- Aerial Musou ( + ):
Weapons[edit | edit source]
- See also: Liu Shan/Weapons
Dynasty Warriors 8[edit | edit source]
Historical Information[edit | edit source]
Personal Info[edit | edit source]
Liu Shan was the son of Liu Bei and Lady Gan. He was born when Liu Bei was stationed under Liu Biao. There are hardly any records of him taking part in his country's wars. His role as a leader was supposedly dedicated to "rectifying the morality of the court". His few recorded rulings within the court seem to reflect this concept. There were comparatively fewer revolts in Shu than there were in Wu or Wei.
However, Liu Shan is notorious for not reacting or paying attention to the political strife caused by the wars around him. Chen Shou, who lived in the same era as Liu Shan, even remarked, "He did not resort and relish in cruelty as Sun Hao did, but I cannot say that he ruled with absolute justice or fairness." Chen Shou wrote that Liu Shan was the type of person who was swayed by flattery. If the people around him thought he was good, then he would accept them. Should they say anything otherwise, he would deem them useless. According to Li Mi's scroll in Book of Jin, he is compared to Duke Huan of Qi: a bit too trusting of his retainers to the point it was almost laughably easy to gain his trust. A statue dedicated to Liu Shan has been erected in Chengdu countless times. Each time it is created, it is torn down by negative protesters.
In the dubiously accurate Hanjin Chunqiu, Sima Zhao entreated the defeated Shu vassals to a banquet with the Wei victors. When a song of Shu was played at the banquet, the former followers of Shu wept. Despite the moving spectacle, Liu Shan kept a smiling countenance. An incredulous Sima Zhao was surprised by how much Liu Shan ignored the feelings of his followers, retorting that Zhuge Liang and Jiang Wei's efforts were wasted on him.
Later Sima Zhao inquired if Liu Shan had missed Shu and was answered with a content no, for Liu Shan was very pleased in his new surroundings. Xi Zheng patronized Liu Shan and instructed him to say, "Yes, I do. In the west there lies the grave of the Prime Minister (Zhuge Liang). I have nothing less than sorrow for the west". Liu Shan did as he was told when Sima Zhao repeated his question. Liu Shan was surprised when Sima Zhao correctly deduced that these same words were uttered by Xi Zheng. Sima Zhao then said to himself, "With a lord like this man, not even someone like Kongming (Zhuge Liang) could have prevented Shu's demise." He then started to feel sympathetic towards the former retainers of Shu.
Liu Shan had two wives and two known mistresses. He fathered seven sons and three daughters.
Life and Death[edit | edit source]
During the escape at Changban, Zhao Yun escorted him and his mother to safety. Liu Shan became the next emperor of Shu when he was only 17 years old. In the years 227-234, Zhuge Liang launched five of his Northern Expeditions. He succumbed to illness and was buried at Dingjunshan. According to the Hanjin Chunqiu, Liu Shan was dressed in the white robes of mourning for three days to remember him. Afterwards, Liu Shan eventually favored Huang Hao over his other advisors apparently due to the flattery the elder said to him. He is noted to have spent most of his days enjoying himself in his harem.
When Xiahou Ba surrendered to Shu, he was brought before Liu Shan. Liu Shan said, "Your father may have lost his life in battle, but it wasn't by my father's hand. Besides," –here he points to his wife– "she is a niece of the Xiahou family." He then granted passage to the defector and rewarded him handsomely. In 260, he is known to have rewarded posthumous titles to several generals.
Since Liu Shan placed his absolute trust in Huang Hao, Huang Hao rose to prominence as the de facto leader of Shu. People who opposed Huang Hao suffered greatly due to the control he had over Liu Shan. This included the refusal to send reinforcements for Jiang Wei's northern expeditions, which further weakened Shu's security and military power. During Huang Hao's manipulative reign in politics, Liu Shan is noted to have done nothing to oppose him.
Once Wei pushed onwards into Shu territory, Jiang Wei urged his liege to strengthen the defenses immediately. Huang Hao opposed this and convinced his lord that a divination was held for the assault. If Liu Shan were to oblige Jiang Wei's request, it would be disastrous for Shu. Liu Shan believed Huang Hao at face value, and the troops were ordered to a stand still. They were understandably overwhelmed when the large Wei army proceeded into Shu. Liu Shan would listen to no other person regarding the invasion, even throwing his protesting son, Liu Chen, out of court.
In 263, Jiang Wei led a desperate counteroffensive against the Wei troops. It ultimately resulted in a grisly failure with many lives lost for Shu. Liu Shan surrendered soon after. He, his wife, and his surviving sons were relocated to Luoyang. He was named Duke of Anle (安楽公). He lived in Luoyang until his death when he was 65 years old and his son, Liu Xun, succeeded his title as duke. Liu Shan's descendants were said to have been slaughtered in the following War of the Eight Princes.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms[edit | edit source]
Romance of the Three Kingdoms invents Liu Shan's childhood name as A Dou. His mother named him after the fortuitous Big Dipper constellation.
When Zhao Yun went to search for Liu Bei's missing family during the escape at Changban, he was unable to save a wounded Lady Mi since she committed suicide as to avoid hampering their flight. After he gave her a makeshift burial, Zhao Yun placed A Dou within his armor and fought his way through Cao Cao's troops alone. Though beaten and wounded Zhao Yun eventually reached Liu Bei and reported what had transpired. Moved by his retainer's loyalty, Liu Bei angrily threw his infant son to the ground. He blamed the crying child for nearly killing one of his greatest retainers. Many readers remark that the crushing blow may have caused Liu Shan's ineptitude.
Liu Shan had doubts in Zhuge Liang's northern campaigns and voiced them to the Prime Minister. While Zhuge Liang was away, Liu Shan started to secretly communicate with Huang Hao. Huang Hao's words appealed to him, and he was easily swayed by whatever the eunuch told him. During Zhuge Liang's absence, Liu Shan drank frequently and his body became weak. Jiang Wan and Fei Yi were ordered to give him strict discipline, but he refused to listen to them. The rest of his activities in the novel roughly mirrors his historical counterpart.
Historical Notes: There was record after Zhuge Liang's death, Liu Shan divided Zhuge Liang's duties into 3 parts held by 3 different posts. One of them was held by Liu Shan himself, the remaining two split evenly and given to 2 different officials. Though this is a good idea, Liu Shan's execution of the policy leaves much to be desired as most of the duties ends up falling into shoulders of 1 officials, in the early years, it was Fei Yi who pretty much shouldered most of the jobs, later passed to Jiang Wan.
Gallery[edit | edit source]